003.1: Timeline

A series of events important to my research.

late 18th to mid-19th century: The Industrial Revolution
The industrial revolution creates the first consumer society in the world, beginning in Great Britain and rippling out. Working people begin to make more as income and mass production of goods gives them something to spend it on.

1844: The Telegraph
Samuel Morse sends his first coded message via telegraph, ushering in the era of digital communication.

1851: The Great Exhibition opens. 
The first exhibition of manufactured goods, the Great Exhibition was held in the Crystal Palace, in London.

1896: Henri Bergson publishes Matter and Memory.
His second book proposes theories of memory later to be influential on Proust's notions of memory.

1913: Proust begins publishing A la recherche du temps perdu.
The first volume of his masterwork is published in Paris by Grasset, funded by Proust himself.

1919: Bauhaus founded in Wiemar
Walter Gropius, Johannes Itten and others found a school to newly unite art and craft for the industrial era.

1921: R.U.R. premiers in Prague. 
Karel Capek's play introduces the word _robot_, as well as the notion that their destiny is to revolt against humans.

1922: Proust comes to England
First English translation, _Remembrance of Things Past_ appears translated by C. K. Scott Moncrieff.

1923: Industrial Slogans
Bauhaus adopts the slogan "Art Into Industry." Later "Art and Technology — A New Unity!" is also adopted.

1925: Bauhaus moves to Dessau
Invited by the government of this industrial region, the Bauhaus  moved Dessau.

1934: John Dewey publishes Art as Experience
The theories related in the book about the experience of aesthetics later influence the Fluxus artists.

July 1945: Bush Looks Into the Future
Vannevar Bush publishes "As We May Think" in the Atlantic, introducing new ideas for networked information storage and retrieval to the public.

March 21–22, 1946: First of Ten Macy Conferences on Cybernetics
These conferences brought together biologists, computer scientists, mathematicians, linguists, and others to discuss technical developments, especially around complex systems.

January 1947: Just Say No to Dystopia
Norbert Wiener publishes "A Scientist Rebels" in the Atlantic, in which he discusses the ethical considerations of science.

1947: The first transistors are created at Bell Labs
Without understanding the mechanisms of semiconductors and developing processes to reproduce these, digital electronics as we know them would be impossible.

1953: The last of the Macy conferences.

1959: Experiential Art
Allen Kaprow organizes 18 Happenings in 6 Parts. Fluxus begins with a group of student's from John Cage's class at the New School.

1961 & 1962: Semiconductors Lighten Up
Robert Biard and Gary Pittman create the first infrared LED. Nick Holonyack creates the first visible LED. It glows red.

1962: J.C.R. Licklider publishes "Man–Computer Symbiosis."
The head of ARPA and a primary mover in directing govenment research money to universities throughout the post-war period. In this article he creates his own analogue to Bush's future-tools.

1964: Ay-o creates Finger Box 
A tactile Fluxus work, Finger Box comprises a set of boxes with finger-sized holes, each filled with a different substance.

1965: Takako Saito creates Smell Chess
In this work, participants play chess with a set that has replaced traditional pieces with vials of various scents. The scent story of each game is mutable and players must memorize the scents to play at all.

1966: Flicker by John Cavanaugh
A Fluxus work in which the art experience can only take place between the spectator and the piece, _Flicker_ is included in George Maciunas's Fluxfilms program.

October 13–23, 1966: Art & Tech at Armory
9 Evenings brings together Bell Labs engineers and avant-garde artists in some of the most famous attempts at art on the edge of technology.

1968: Douglas Englebart presents the mouse
The debut of the mouse, an early hand-held computer interface tool.

1969: Arpanet — the first wee internet — appears.
Connecting four universities and labs, Arpanet was the first implementation of TCP/IP protocol.

1973: First passive RFID tag patented.
A key technology in seemingly seamless communication, RFID was developed by Mario W. Cardullo.

1975: Myron Kreuger's "Videoplace" 
An interactive environment driven by closed-circuit video, this work appears at the Milwaukee Art Museum.

1980: "Volatile" by Cildo Meireles
An experiential scent piece from the Brazilian artist.

1985: MIT Media Lab is founded
Its mission is to research technologies "for a better future."

1988: House of the Future Autotron
Focused on home automation, the house built in Rosmalen, the Netherlands. The house is noted particularly for its voice interface.

1991: Coining Ubiqiutous Computing
Scientific American publishes an article by Xerox PARC scientist Mark Weiser in which he explains the principles of ubiquitous computing, including the ideas of invisibility and seamlessness. 

1996: The Science of Memory
Rachel Herz starts investigations into scientific underpinnings of olfactory memory.

1996: Journal of Material Culture established
A key journal in the study of material culture, the interdisciplinary field that looks to understand human history through our artifacts.

1999: Put Some Sensors in It
Proctor & Gamble's Kevin Ashton coins the phrase "Internet of Things."

2000: The first LG smart refrigerator is announced.
Perhaps the canonical Internet of Things object, the smart fridge is equally trumpeted and derided.

2002: Time Regained
First volume of the new English translation,  In Search of Lost Time appears. This new set of translations replaces the flowery initial translations with simpler language — closer to the French tone.

2004: I Hate Perfume
Chris Brosius opens a perfume company that produces complex, narrative scents.

2005: Adafruit Established
Limor Fried founds Adafruit, one of the biggest sources for hobbyist electronics materials, education and ideas.

2005: The first Arduino team formed in Ivrea, Italy.
Following on the Wiring, the Arduino makes microcontrollers cheaply available to hobbyists, allowing anyone with interest to create their own sensor objects at home. 

2007: The iPhone Released
Although previous PDAs made handheld computing available, the  iPhone is the device that brings mobile computing to the masses. 

2008: A Look at What Privacy Might Mean
Höök et al. publish a paper on Interactional Empowerment at CHI, focused on the eMoto and Affective Diary, devices for communication with respect for user's privacy and autonomy.

2008: Quantify Yourself
First Fitbit announced at TechCrunch 50. Trackers like the Fitbit get consumers used to intimate monitoring experiences with computers.

2012: Art of Scent 
This exhibit at the Museum of Art and Design is one of the few shows to investigate scents as works of art.

2014: Google Glass goes on sale to the public
Moving the computer even further into the realm of the invisible surveiller, Google Glass is not popular with everyone, especially patrons in San Francisco bars.

2014– : The Internet of Everything
An explosion of networked devices are available to consumers — particularly in the fields of toys and healthcare.

2015: The Tate Sensorium
This work at the Tate Modern augments work from the collection with other sensual experiences related to the painting. Art can be embodied even after its initial creation.

many Internet of Things events thanks to this timeline from TFM networks and this from Ted Donavan